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Cyprus’ Exploitation of Citizenship Investment Schemes Raises Questions over Many Countries’ Commitment to Europe’s Banking Rules

by Gordon Kerr, Cavin O’Driscoll with Enrico Colombatto    11 November 2020    0

Background and History of Citizenship Investment Schemes (‘CIS’). Sixteen EU member states (plus the United Kingdom) operate schemes enabling a residency permit to be obtained by a non-EU citizen in return for a substantial investment, minimum €1 million. Residence in most member states (...)


Behavioral Biases: How Markets Can Outperform Paternalism

by IREF    11 November 2020    0

WP 2020-07. Decisions in laboratory experiments often reveal departures from the rational decision maker framework. These findings have been employed to legitimize a paternalistic approach for the government calling for policies that protect citizens from their own behavioral biases. This (...)


Old democracies, high incomes

by Alexander Fink, Benedikt Schmal, Translation by Anna-Maria Kohnke    4 November 2020    0

After the fall of the Iron Curtain, comparing political and economic system appeared to have become a futile exercise. Western democracies had outperformed the socialist-communist social systems. Yet, thirty years later we see that no “End of History” has occurred, and that the fundamental (...)


Behind the Curtains: The Complex Reality of Sex Work

by Anna-Maria Kohnke    28 October 2020    0

Vivian in Pretty Woman, Tralala in Last Exit to Brooklyn, Fantine in Les Misérables – sex workers are commonly featured in popular culture. Social perceptions of a sex worker’s daily life are inevitably influenced by how sex work is portrayed in fiction. Some of these perceptions turn into (...)


The Evil of Agricultural Subsidies: the Case of EU Common Agricultural Policy, Netherlands and New Zealand

by Mohamed Moutii    21 October 2020    0

Although we live today in an interconnected global economy, where international trade is the norm, and most of the products we use daily are manufactured abroad, agriculture remains one of the most protectionist industries. All over the world, the agriculture sector is heavily subsidied and (...)


Spain’s Caixabank Acquires Bankia, thanks in large part to Badwill

by Gordon Kerr, Cavin O’Driscoll with Enrico Colombatto    14 October 2020    0

Whilst diplomatically presented as a merger, the union of Spain’s third and fourth largest banks, announced mid-September, is in fact the acquisition of Bankia by Caixa. Shares in multiple European banks rose on the news - Société Générale and Paribas of France were up 5%, Commerzbank’s shares rose (...)


Libertarian paternalism in policy making: empirical,methodological and philosophical problems

by IREF    4 October 2020    0

WP 2020-06. Nudge theory, according to its founders Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, is a kind of libertarian paternalism that helps people towards making choices that can improve their health, wealth and lives. The theory relies on the insights of the Heuristics & Biases research (...)


Establishing a revolutionary newspaper: transplanting liberalism in a pre-modern society

by IREF    3 October 2020    0

WP 2020-05. In late 1823 two representatives of the London Philhellenic Committee (a Philhellenic group established to support the Greek War of Independence from Ottoman rule) arrived in Missolonghi in Western Greece to administer a loan to the revolutionary Greek government and help the (...)


Corruption: Another Plague in Europe

by Alexander Fink, Fabian Kurz, Translation by Anna-Maria Kohnke    30 September 2020    0

As a reaction to COVID-19, governments are making extensive financial aid available. However, beyond helping out households and companies in need, aid also attracts opportunists. Because of this, the OSCE is expecting corruption to increase. Yet, this danger differs across countries, even (...)


The contractual approach to welfare state reform

by IREF    29 September 2020    0

WP 2020-04. In the last three decades, the mainstream perspective to welfare policy design has emphasized the role of personal responsibility. The stress on personal responsibility has materialized through an obligation to stay active in the labour market. Benefit claimants are entitled to (...)


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