Institute for Research in Economic and Fiscal issues

IREF Europe - Institute for Research in Economic and Fiscal issues

Fiscal competition
and economic freedom


Britain's Unsustainable Higher Education Financials

Britain’s Unsustainable Higher Education Financials

The Faults In The Macron System: Wind Turbines At The LA Consulate

The Faults In The Macron System: Wind Turbines At The LA Consulate


Who Is Afraid Of Populism?

Who Is Afraid Of Populism?

The EU Needs Property Rights In Spectrum

The EU Needs Property Rights In Spectrum


Will The ECB Step In and Help Turkey Stabilise Its Currency?

Will The ECB Step In and Help Turkey Stabilise Its Currency?

Growth of the World Population: Good News for Humans and the Planet

Growth of the World Population: Good News for Humans and the Planet


Latest publications

What Will The Fourth Industrial Revolution Require?

What Will The Fourth Industrial Revolution Require?In the last few years, the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) has become one of the most investigated and discussed topics in the political and economic debate. 4IR is based on the application of new technologies, primarily digital ones, in production. Specifically, according to Boston (...)

Activist Trade Policies: More Risks than Benefits

Activist Trade Policies: More Risks than BenefitsThe global economic order is changing: The free trade agreement TTIP has been put on hold; the World Trade Organisation (WTO) which held a dominant position after WWII with its multilateral rules has lost influence; the US, the EU and China are threatening each other with higher tariffs one (...)

Would De-Growth Make Us Happier?

Would De-Growth Make Us Happier?Economists use the per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as the main indicator of the level of material well-being achieved by a country. The GDP is the cake with which we feed ourselves; the portfolio to draw on to meet our material needs. In recent years, there have been many critical (...)

The Economic Illiteracy of the Google Antitrust Case

The Economic Illiteracy of the Google Antitrust CaseThe European Commission handed Google a record-breaking €4.3 billion fine and demanded major changes to its business model over alleged competition abuses on its Android mobile operating system. The Competition Commission claimed Google was abusing manufacturers to “cement its dominant position” (...)

Regional Convergence In Europe And The Redesign Of Cohesion Policy

Regional Convergence In Europe And The Redesign Of Cohesion PolicyIn order to achieve a satisfactory degree of socio-economic cohesion, the European authorities have long recognized the importance of convergence in per capita levels of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). As the fulfilment of this objective requires that relatively poor regions exhibit per capita (...)

An Open Letter Opposing Emmanuel Macron’s Project for Europe
Signed by 154 German Economists Regarding Fiscal Harmonization and Financial Union

An Open Letter Opposing Emmanuel Macron's Project for EuropeThis open letter, addressed by 154 German economists against the Euro zone reform proposed by France, passed all but unnoticed. These well-known economists warn against a Europe led by a European Minister of Finances and the European Central Bank. In contrast with the French proposal, the (...)

The BIS Takes Aim At Cryptocurrencies:
Do They Understand The Economics Of Cool?

The BIS Takes Aim At Cryptocurrencies:To help understand the genuinely transformative business technology of blockchain in the context of cryptocurrency hype, Wharton professor David Werbach encourages the distinction to be drawn between three frequently confused concepts:
1. Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, which are simply (...)

The Need for Devolution to Address the UK’s Transport Sector Crisis

The Need for Devolution to Address the UK's Transport Sector CrisisThe Heathrow Expansion
On the night of the 25th of June, the UK Parliament voted in favour (415 to 119) of the £14bn expansion of Heathrow airport in London. This decision represents the latest episode in a decade-long national debate on the creation of third runway at Heathrow. Those is (...)

Hospital Budget Constraint(s) and Patients’ Mobility: Evidence from Lombardy
by Paolo Berta, Carla Guerriero, and Rosella Levaggi

Hospital Budget Constraint(s) and Patients' Mobility: Evidence from LombardyWP 2018-06. Executive Summary.

The High Cost of GDPR is Already Apparent

The High Cost of GDPR is Already ApparentOn May 25th, 2018, one of the most sweeping changes to the regulation of the internet, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), came into effect. While it has been only a few weeks since the new privacy policies have been enacted, there are already noticeable changes to (...)

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