Institute for Research in Economic and Fiscal issues

IREF Europe - Institute for Research in Economic and Fiscal issues

Fiscal competition
and economic freedom


Brexit Exposes The Hidden Costs Of Tariffs

Brexit Exposes The Hidden Costs Of Tariffs

Paris At Loggerheads With Rome As European Parliamentary Elections Approach

Paris At Loggerheads With Rome As European Parliamentary Elections Approach


The Solitude of Neoliberalism

The Solitude of Neoliberalism

European Union's Disastrous Digital Services Tax

European Union’s Disastrous Digital Services Tax


Mandatory Year of Service: Coerced Community?

Mandatory Year of Service: Coerced Community?

The Reassessed OECD Jobs Strategy Revisited

The Reassessed OECD Jobs Strategy Revisited


Latest publications

The EU To Push For EMU Deepening After May Elections

The EU To Push For EMU Deepening After May ElectionsWith little fanfare, the Eurogroup of 19 Eurozone finance ministries published in December its report detailing progress on how to strengthen and deepen the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Written in dry bureaucratic language, the Report Summary hardly appeared on the radar screens of (...)

Trade Liberalisation: The Challenge of Non-Tariff Barriers

Trade Liberalisation: The Challenge of Non-Tariff BarriersThe latest tariff debate between the United States and China, and between the US and the European Union, could give the impression that tariffs are the only impediment to global trade. Yet, trade flows are also burdened by other, far less transparent, measures: non-tariff barriers. Indeed, the (...)

Game of Thrones: Italian Style

Game of Thrones: Italian StyleIn less than 25 years, the Italian political system has experienced three watershed elections, an unmatched record among most (if not all) Western European democracies. In 1994, the entire Italian political galaxy, which had been dominated by Christian Democracy party for almost 50 years, (...)

Sugden’s Response to Behavioural Paternalism

Sugden's Response to Behavioural PaternalismThe Community of Advantage by Robert Sugden has just been published by Oxford University Press. The author is a professor at the University of East Anglia, a member of the British Academy, and an influential economist. In his youth, influenced by Nobel Prize winner James Buchanan, Sugden worked (...)

The Effectiveness of MIFID II After 11 Months

The Effectiveness of MIFID II After 11 MonthsBackground to MIFID, MIFIR and EMIR
Version 2 of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MIFID II) is a particularly important piece of recent European Law due to the extent and scale of its impacts on professionals operating in capital markets. MIFID II was enacted in 2014, and the (...)

The Economics of Donald Trump’s Twitter Account

The Economics of Donald Trump's Twitter AccountUS President Donald Trump’s (in)famous tweet-storms have been used as anecdotal evidence of his volatility, anger, etc., but they are also an important source of policy information. After all, it has been repeatedly noted how Trump uses social media, particularly Twitter, as a way of addressing (...)

GDP Per Capita of OECD Countries: Good News

GDP Per Capita of OECD Countries: Good NewsCrises, shortages, and bad news are often dominating daily politics and media coverage. Under the radar of politics and media, however, highly desirable developments have been taking place. Among those is growing GDP per capita across the OECD since the 1990s. The strong economic growth in the (...)

Greece’s Institutional Trap
By: Aristides N. Hatzis

Greece's Institutional TrapWP 2018-11. Executive Summary.

The Stand-off Between Italy and the EU is a Serious Threat to the Euro

The Stand-off Between Italy and the EU is a Serious Threat to the EuroWhy all the fuss?
The nub of the dispute is Italy’s budget plans, which have been rejected by the European Commission (EC). The budget claims to increase public indebtedness by 2.4% in 2019 rather than the previously approved figure of 1.6%. However, the EC is unhappy about the violation of (...)

Visibility or Virtue Signalling? The Liberalisation of Salon de Paris

Visibility or Virtue Signalling? The Liberalisation of Salon de ParisThere exists more or less a consensus that the state must promote the arts. This exists even among many who know that state intervention brings market distortions, and it should be clear the arts are no exception. The case of the Salon de Paris, investigated by F. Etro, S. Marchesi and E. (...)

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